Land Titles Explained

June 2, 2020 Uche Emordi

Deed of assignment

A deed of Assignment is an Agreement between the Seller of a Land or Property and a Buyer of that Land or property showing evidence that the Seller has transferred all his rights, his title, his interest and ownership of that land to show that the buyer has just bought land. The person or Seller who transfers his rights or interests in that property is usually called the Assignor and the person who receives such right or interest from the Seller is called the Assignee. A Deed of Assignment therefore is an Agreement where an assignor states his promise that from the date of the assignment or any date stipulated therein, the assignor assigns his ownership in that Land to the assignee. The deed contains very pertinent information for a real estate transaction. For one, it spells out the date when the ownership of the property transfers from one owner to the other. The deed also gives a specific description of the property that is included in the transfer of ownership. To give a deed of assignment legal backing, it must be registered at Lands registry.

Registered Survey

This is a document that shows the particular area of a land that belongs to an individual after he/she has either purchased/allocated to or transferred ownership of the land. It can also be called the geographical map of a person’s land, showing the exact location of the land. Once the survey is done by a Surveyor, it must be registered at Surveyor General's office to give it the necessary backing. There is a red or record copy of a survey and also a blue copy of a survey. The red or record copy is the survey plan that has been registered at the Surveyor General's office.  A survey plan will tell you if the land in question is under Government acquisition or its free from all encumbrances. It's advisable that you still chart the survey at lands department in Alausa to confirm if truly it is free from Govt acquisition or any form of encumbrances. 

Excision

Under Nigerian law, all lands falls under the supervision of the state Governor. A land can either fall under committed land or global acquisition. Just like I said earlier, all lands belongs to state government in Nigeria, hence the word global acquisition. Lands that fall under "committed" means the land has been designated for a future use by Government, it could be for a state hospital, school etc, so it's not advisable to buy or sell any land that falls under committed as it will never be released by Government at any point.  For a land that falls under Global acquisition, a family, or individual can apply to the state to excise (sort of carve out) a portion or expanse of a land to him or her. Once the excision is approved, it means the land has been released by the state.

Other titles include:

  1. Gazette.
  2. Certificate of Occupancy.
  3. Governors Consent.
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